A republic (from Latin:res publica) is a sovereign state or country which is organised with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law. In modern times, the definition of a republic is commonly limited to a government which excludes a monarch. Currently, 147 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names.
Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology and composition. In the classical and medieval period of Europe, many states were fashioned on the Roman Republic, which referred to the governance of the city of Rome, between it having kings and emperors. The Italian medieval and Renaissance political tradition, today referred to as "civic humanism", is sometimes considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust and Tacitus. However, Greek-influenced Roman authors, such as Polybius and Cicero, sometimes also used the term as a translation for the Greek politeia which could mean regime generally, but could also be applied to certain specific types of regime which did not exactly correspond to that of the Roman Republic. Republics were not equated with classical democracies such as Athens, but had a democratic aspect.
De re publica (On the Commonwealth; see below) is a dialogue on Roman politics by Cicero, written in six books between 54 and 51 BC. It is written in the format of a Socratic dialogue in which Scipio Africanus Minor (who had died a few decades before Cicero was born, several centuries after Socrates' death) takes the role of a wise old man — a typical feature of the genre. Cicero's treatise was politically controversial: by choosing the format of a philosophical dialogue he avoided naming his political adversaries directly. By employing various speakers to raise differing opinions, Cicero not only remained true to his favored skeptical method of setting opposing arguments against one another (see, e.g., Carneades), but also made it more difficult for his adversaries to take him to task on what he had written.
Setting and dramatis personæ
The dialogue is portrayed as taking place in Scipio's estate, during three consecutive days. Each day is described in two books, with an introduction by Cicero preceding the dialogue of each book. A large part of the last book (the sixth) is taken by Scipio telling a dream he had: this passage is known as Somnium Scipionis, or "Scipio's dream".
Denis Mukwege, a doctor and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate from the DemocraticRepublic of the Congo, agreed that progress made in international law should not mask the fact that the scourge of sexual violence continues in all conflict situations around the globe, and that responses remain underfunded.
"After the assault, I thought I would take my own life," said Charlotte*, an 18-year-old survivor of sexual violence. Charlotte is from Bangui, the capital of Central AfricanRepublic (CAR) ... Sexual violence has become a public health crisis in CAR, and women and children are most affected ... "[Sexual violence] is something that boils in the heart.
Today’s meeting is a critical opportunity to in our collective efforts to eradicate the scourge of conflict-related sexual violence ... The that perpetuates cycles of sexual violence including in the context of tensions over transhumance corridors, in the Central AfricanRepublic and Sudan.
It lists 52 parties “credibly suspected” of responsibility “for patterns of rape or other forms of sexual violence” in conflicts on the agenda of the U.N ... “In the Central AfricanRepublic, pre-electoral violence flared up, exposing women and girls to threats and heightened risks of sexual violence,” he said.
Sexual violence has become a public health issue in Central AfricanRepublic (CAR) over the past decade, with women and minors being the most affected groups ... “After the assault, I thought I would take my own life,” says Charlotte*, an 18-year-old survivor of sexual violence from CAR’s capital, Bangui.
ILOILO CITY — A high-ranking leader of the New People’s Army (NPA) in Iloilo is facing charges for allegedly sexually exploiting a former female teenage rebel. Joven Ceralvo has been charged of violating RepublicAct (RA) No ... is accused of sexually abusing a 16-year-old girl.
This measure was logical for a state and society experiencing sexual revolution. In 1922, the new Criminal Code of RussianRepublic criminalized casual abortions – performed by people without medical education, or in unsanitary conditions ... How sexual revolution exploded (and imploded) across 1920sRussia (PHOTOS).
This measure was logical for a state and society experiencing sexual revolution. In 1922, the new Criminal Code of RussianRepublic criminalized casual abortions - performed by people without medical education, or in unsanitary conditions ... in the Russian Soviet Republic alone.
The UK has suspended aid funding for Oxfam again after fresh allegations of sexual exploitation and bullying were made against staff. Two Oxfam workers in the DemocraticRepublic of Congo (DRC) were suspended last week following the latest claims ... The allegations of sexual ...
... sexual violence in times of conflict and peace ... In the Central AfricanRepublic, the BanguiCourt of Appeal handed down three convictions for conflict-related sexual violence in 2020, following the provision by the Team of technical and financial support to the national judiciary.