A republic (from Latin:res publica) is a sovereign state or country which is organised with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law. In modern times, the definition of a republic is commonly limited to a government which excludes a monarch. Currently, 147 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names.
Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology and composition. In the classical and medieval period of Europe, many states were fashioned on the Roman Republic, which referred to the governance of the city of Rome, between it having kings and emperors. The Italian medieval and Renaissance political tradition, today referred to as "civic humanism", is sometimes considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust and Tacitus. However, Greek-influenced Roman authors, such as Polybius and Cicero, sometimes also used the term as a translation for the Greek politeia which could mean regime generally, but could also be applied to certain specific types of regime which did not exactly correspond to that of the Roman Republic. Republics were not equated with classical democracies such as Athens, but had a democratic aspect.
De re publica (On the Commonwealth; see below) is a dialogue on Roman politics by Cicero, written in six books between 54 and 51 BC. It is written in the format of a Socratic dialogue in which Scipio Africanus Minor (who had died a few decades before Cicero was born, several centuries after Socrates' death) takes the role of a wise old man — a typical feature of the genre. Cicero's treatise was politically controversial: by choosing the format of a philosophical dialogue he avoided naming his political adversaries directly. By employing various speakers to raise differing opinions, Cicero not only remained true to his favored skeptical method of setting opposing arguments against one another (see, e.g., Carneades), but also made it more difficult for his adversaries to take him to task on what he had written.
Setting and dramatis personæ
The dialogue is portrayed as taking place in Scipio's estate, during three consecutive days. Each day is described in two books, with an introduction by Cicero preceding the dialogue of each book. A large part of the last book (the sixth) is taken by Scipio telling a dream he had: this passage is known as Somnium Scipionis, or "Scipio's dream".
The Civil Service Commission has amended the rules on sexual harassment to include offfending acts such as text messaging or email, online or in streets and public places ... The changes in the 2017 RACCS were primarily made to further deter sexual harassment in the public sector as well as to harmonize said rules with RepublicAct No.
Nearly two dozen women in DemocraticRepublic of Congo have come forward with allegations of sexual abuse by aid workers during an Ebola outbreak, adding to a scandal that broke last year, a report said on Wednesday.
... that children risk being "othered" due to the way sexual health education is being taught in schools ... She said that "teaching children that relationships can be placed in a hierarchy depending on sexual orientation should be an anathema in any modern republic".
BUTEMBO, DemocraticRepublic of Congo. More than 20 Congolese women have accused aid workers of sexual abuse in new claims that include rape and unwanted pregnancies, with UN investigators uncovering similar allegations of workers exploiting vulnerable women ... More than 20 women report sexual abuse by aid workers in Butembo.
However, she also confirmed that Lu Na had gone to citizens advice seeking information about getting a divorce and was referred to a female solicitor, and that Lu Na also told her of her friendship with a 'professor', but that the relationship was not sexual.
Iranian news organizations outside of the Islamic Republic reported on Friday and Saturday about the anti-gay and anti-transgender murder of Fazeli-Monfared after at least two members of his family became aware of a letter from the Iranian regime’s conscription military organization declaring him ineligible because of his sexual orientation.
An Ontario woman who nearly lost her chance at justice after being sexually assaulted by an official in the Dominican Republic government more than four years ago says she's relieved he was found guilty this week ... .
“Women and girls in the Dominican Republic have had a long wait for authorities to defend their lives and their sexual and reproductive rights, but the movement to end the country’s archaic total abortion ban is stronger than ever,” Margaret Wurth, a researcher at Human Rights Watch (HRW), said on Twitter.
Consensual same-sex sexual acts are already criminalized in Uganda... “Sexual Minorities Uganda calls on the president of the Republic of Uganda to consider not assenting to the bill because of the problematic Clause 11 that now classifies sexual and gender minorities as sexual offenders,” said SMUG in its statement.